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thinking of history as an additional acquirement for
people who were supposed to have had their real
education already. - In any case, those English gentte-
men of the eighteenth century were brought up from
their very childhood to be rulers and politicians. They
saw the practice of administration, heard political dis-
cussion, learned the arts of management in their local
estates and observed the conduct of public affairs at first
hand from their earliest days—they were being educated
all the time in the actual practice of politics. For these
people history came in its proper context—it was the
one additional thing which would widen their horizon,
Since they knew so much about the practical working of
current affairs they were politicians already, and the study
of history was calculated to make them better ones
precisely because it broadened their horizon. I should
seriously question the validity of a parallel argument for
the modern democratic world and our modern edu-
cational system. We are wrong to think that the study
of history itself is sufficient to turn us into competent
politicians. And it is perhaps a tragedy that nowa-
days so many people—even if unconsciously—are in
reality building up their political outlook from what .
they have read in books.

Some of the best diplomatic historians I ever met were
almost the worst diplomats in the world when it came,
to transacting business in real life. It is often said in
England that history is useful, and that it qualifies
people to take part in politics, because it enables them to*
see how such things as politics and diplomacy work, I
once had^to induce the governing body of my college;